The Alfa Romeo 4C is a mid-engined, lightweight, rear-wheel drive sports car. Available in coupe and spider body style, it uses a carbon fiber tub, front and rear crash box, and hybrid rear subframe mainly out of aluminum to keep weight at 895 kilograms (1,973 lb) and 1,050 kilograms (2,315 lb) in the United States. The 4C is Alfa Romeo's first mass-produced vehicle of the 21st century to re-enter the North American automotive market. The production car was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show, followed by 2013 Essen 'Techno Classica', Goodwood Festival of Speed 2013, Moscow Raceway, 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show. The bare '4C000' chassis was also shown at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. Ordering of European models began in October 2013 at Alfa Romeo dealerships in Europe. As part of the Alfa Romeo 4C launch, Alfa Romeo Style Centre and Compagnia Ducale designed a 4C Innovative Frame Design Bicycle, inspired by the Alfa Romeo 4C coupe. The vehicle went on sale in December 2013 and marketed in Europe, Asia and America. Production of the 4C began May 2013 at Maserati's plant in Modena, with an expected production of up to 2500 units per year. It will be the first mass-produced Alfa Romeo car for re-entry into the US market. Production of the Alfa Romeo 4C was originally estimated to be over 1000 units per year, with an upper limit of 3500 units per year, depending on the quantity of carbon fiber chassis that can be built by the supplier Adler Plastic. Within the 3,500-unit quota, 1,000 units of which are earmarked for Europe. Delivery of the European Alfa Romeo 4C Launch Edition took place at Balocco (Vercelli, Italy) Test Centre, with vehicles delivered to Pierluigi De Silvestro (Switzerland), Philippe Walch (France), Carlos Diniz (Germany), Aldo Mariani (the Netherlands) and Stefano Zanotti (Italy). In 2018 4C, in it's coupe form, will no longer be available in United States. 4C Spider will however continue to be sold there. As of 2019 both models are still in production for the full year at least. The car was designed by Centro Stile Alfa Romeo (Style Centre) and developed by Alfa Romeo. The chassis is composed of a central carbon fiber tub, with aluminium subframes front and rear. The carbon fiber tub is produced by Tecno Tessile Adler in Airola. The carbon fiber components that make up the chassis are cut using CNC technology. The entire carbon-fiber monocoque chassis ("tub") of the car weighs 143 pounds (65 kg). Front and rear aluminum subframes combine with the tub, roof reinforcements and engine mounting to comprise the 4C chassis giving the vehicle a total chassis weight of 236 lb (107 kg) and a total vehicle curb weight of just 2,465 lb (1,118 kg). The 4C has a single carbon fiber body, similar to the body of many supercars. The outer body is made of a composite material (SMC for Sheet Moulding Compound) which is 20% lighter than steel. The stability is comparable to steel and better than aluminium. The 4C employs double wishbone suspensions at the front and MacPherson struts at the rear. The resultant weight distribution is 38% on the front and 62% on the rear axle. Wheels and tyres have different diameters and widths front and rear: 205/45 R17 front and 235/40 R18 back as standard, with optional 205/40 R18 and 235/35 R19. Both wheel options come equipped with Pirelli P Zero tires. The 4C uses vented disc brakes on all wheels. The car can stop from 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) in 36 meters. To save weight and increase steering feel, the 4C has no power steering. Its center of gravity height, at 40 centimetres (16 in) off the ground, is 7 centimetres (2.8 in) lower than that of the Lotus Elise. The 4C uses a new all-aluminium 1.75 L (1,742 cc) inline 4 cylinder turbocharged engine producing 240 metric horsepower (177 kW) at 6000 rpm. The engine has been designed for minimum weight. The engine's combined fuel consumption 6.8 litres per 100 kilometres (42 mpg imp; 35 mpg US). 0-62 mph (0-100 km/h) acceleration is achieved in 4.5 seconds and the top speed is 258 kilometres per hour (160 mph), the power-to-weight-ratio being just 0.267 hp/kg (8.22 lb/hp). A journalist from Quattroruote car magazine demonstrated how the 4C accelerates from 0-100 km/h (0-62 mph) faster than 4.5 seconds. In race mode, with left foot on the brake pedal, if you pull the right shift paddle the engine will rev to 3500 rpm, but if you also pull the left paddle the engine will rev to 6000 rpm and 0-100 km/h (0-62 mph) time will go down to 4.2 seconds. Italian car magazine Quattroruote published the lap time of 4C around Nurburgring. It lapped the ring in 8:04. The 4C is equipped with a six speed Alfa TCT Dual Dry Clutch Transmission, and can be operated via gearshift paddles on the steering wheel. It also has an Alfa 'DNA' dynamic control selector which controls the behavior of engine, brakes, throttle response, suspension and gearbox. In addition to the modes already seen in Giulietta, the 4C has a new "Race" mode. The Spider version of the 4C was previewed showing a pre-production prototype at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show. Sharing its engine with the Coupe version, the 4C Spider has different external parts such as the headlights, exhaust and engine hood, as well as a different roof section that features a removable roof panel. Alfa admits it has had to make some strengthening tweaks to the 4C to cope with the removal of the top, with the net result being a 45 kg (99 lb) weight increase (dry weight 940 kg). Top speed is quoted at 257 km/h (160 mph) and acceleration at 4,5 seconds to 100 km/h (62 mph).